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标题: 给学校的信 - 纪律 [打印本页]

作者: Sue    时间: 2010-8-16 15:24     标题: 给学校的信 - 纪律

学习就是纪律
Learning is discipline

When you look around you, not so much in the human world as in nature, in the heavens, you see an extraordinary sense of order, balance and harmony. Every tree and flower has its own order, its own beauty; every hilltop and every valley has a sense of its own rhythm and stability. Though man tries to control the rivers and pollutes their waters, they have their own flow, their own far-reaching movement. Apart from man, in the seas, in the air and the vast expanse of the heavens there is an extraordinary sense of purity and orderly existence. Though the fox kills the chicken, and the bigger animals live on the little animals, what appears to be cruelty is a design of order in this universe, except for man. When man doesn't interfere, there is great beauty of balance and harmony. This harmony can exist only in freedom, not in restriction and not in conflict.

看看你的周围,在自然界里,在天上,有着一种非凡意义上的秩序,平衡与和谐,这在人类的世界里是不多见的。每一棵树,每一朵花都有着它的秩序,它的美;每一个山峰和每一个峡谷都有着它自己的韵律和沉稳。尽管人们试图去控制河流,也污染了河水,但它们仍有着自身的流向,它们自己的深远的流动。抛开人类不说,在海洋里,在天空中,在宇宙的广阔深处,都有着一种非常意义上的纯净和秩序的存在。虽然狐狸要吃鸡,大动物以小动物为食,这看起来似乎残忍,却也是宇宙中一种有序的设计,而人类是个例外。当人们不去干预时,便会有平衡与和谐的巨大的美。这种和谐只会存在于自由里,而不是在限制和冲突中。

Everything in nature has its season, its dying and rebirth. It is only man that lives in confusion, in conflict, in disorder. If you have watched in a wood, all the living things have their instinctual ways, their own pattern of life which is immemorial and endless. But man is shaped by his selfishness, and his so-called spontaneity is within the field of his self-interest. He is shaped and controlled by the culture, the environment in which he lives. Society tells him what to do; the elders try to shape the minds of the young to conform, to obey and to live in a very small space both outwardly and inwardly. Reform is the breaking of one pattern only to conform to another. We live a very short life, in conflict, in fear and sorrow. Only when we are very young do we seem to be utterly happy and unconcerned. All this soon fades, and then begins the weary conflict of existence.

自然界里的每样东西都有着它的季节,它的死亡和重生。只有人类生活在困惑,冲突和混乱里。如果你曾去树林中观察,会发现所有的生命都有着它们浑然天成的生活方式,它们自己的生命形态,起于无始之前亦将永远延续。但是人类却被他的自私所塑造,他的所谓的自发性仍就盘居在自我兴趣的天地里。他被他所生活的文化和环境所塑造和控制。社会告诉他去做什么;老一辈试图去塑造年轻一辈的心灵,让他们去服从,去顺从,内在和外在都只是活在一个狭小的空间里。改革也无非是打破一种模式而投向另一种模式。我们的生命转瞬即逝,却充满了冲突,恐惧和悲伤。只有在我们非常年轻时,才会看起来是那么的快乐和无忧无虑。而所有这些又会很快的褪色,于是生活又开始出现那令人厌倦的冲突。

In all this turmoil there is neither freedom nor the order of spontaneity, for freedom is a great sense of spontaneity. In society, in the family, in a school, if there is no order there is no relationship. And yet we want a relationship which is really an attachment to another without an inward sense of harmony, wholeness, integrity. If you walk past a parade ground you see the poor soldier being drilled day after day by the beat of the drum and the voice of the sergeant to obey, to conform and to follow. He is made into a machine to kill and to protect himself. In similar ways from childhood we are drilled to protect ourselves by conforming to the old or to the new. This drilling goes on in the office, in the workshop, in the church, in the school. This is called order, and this is what concerns most parents. This has been going on genera¬tion after generation, and the gap between two generations is only an interval in which a new pattern takes shape.

所有这些混乱里,既没有自由也没有自发性的秩序,因为自由巨大的自发性。在社会,家庭和学校里,如果没有秩序就不会有关系。然而我们想要的关系实际上只是一种对于别人执着,而缺少一种内在的和谐,完整和健全感。如果你路过练兵场,你会看到那些可怜的士兵通过鼓声和军官的口令日复一日的操练,让他们去顺从,遵命和跟随。他们被制造成了杀戮和保护自己的机器。同样类似的,我们从孩提时就被加以训练,通过听命于老人或新人来保护自己。这种训练在办公室,车间,教堂和学校里不断发生。这就是所谓的秩序,这就是大多数家长所关心的。这种事持续了一代又一代,而两代人之间的间隔(距离)不过是一个新模式形成前()的空隙。(两代人之间的距离只不过为新模式的形成提供了可能)

Is it not possible to have order without effort, without the strife between those who see that order is necessary and those who rebel against any form of compulsion? Is there an order without conformity? Is there an action that does not lead to routine and boredom? This is one of the problems in out world of relationship. Every intelligent person, whether old or young, sees that order is necessary: getting up, learning, playing, and so on. If you want to be a good golfer, you must swing the club in a certain way; if you want to be a good swimmer, you must learn the strokes. Learning to be a good golfer or tennis player brings its own natural movement of control. This control is not imposed by anyone but the very movement of the hand and arm, of the body is infinitely orderly and subtle. Each trade has its own discipline, and learning is the discipline.

难道不可能拥有秩序而又没有努力,没有那种把秩序看做必要的人和反抗任何形式的强迫的人之间的斗争吗?是否有一种无须服从秩序?是否有一种行动不会陷入例行公事和索然无味?这就是我们的关系世界里的问题之一。每一个聪明的人,无论老幼,都会明白秩序是必须的:起床,学习,玩耍,等等。如果你想成为一个好的高尔夫球手,你必须以某种方式挥杆;如果你想成为游泳健将,你必须学习击水。学习如何成为一个好的高尔夫球手或网球手,会带来他自身的有控制的运动。这种控制不是为任何人所强迫的,而正是手臂和身体无比有序和微妙的运动。每一个行业都有它自身的纪律,而学习就是纪律。

Discipline is an unfortunate word. In it are implied drill, practice, conformity, subjugation, restraint, and the conflict of indolence. The dictionary meaning of the word discipline is to learn—only to learn and nothing else. If you do not want to learn, then parents, the school, society force you to conform whether you like it or not. However new the society may be, it forces you to fit in. The religious have thrived on this through fear and reward. Either you learn through spontaneous interest or you are driven, compelled to learn. When you are compelled to learn, then your knowledge is mechanical and you use that knowledge mechanically. Then you complain that life has no meaning, and you try to escape through various illusions, through daydreaming or fanciful words. Night-clubs, the weekend recreation, the holidays are the trivia of escape. You have narrowed down your life to the family and the responsibility it brings, to endless work and to the inevitable.

纪律是一个不幸的词。它里面暗含着操练,练习,服从,制服,限制和与懒散的冲突。而纪律字典上的意思是学习——只是学习,而没有别的。如果你不想去学习,那么你的家长,学校,社会会强迫你去服从,而不管你是否愿意。无论这个社会有多新,它都会强迫你去适应。宗教就是通过恐惧和回报得以兴盛。要么你通过自发的兴趣来学习,要么是被驱使,被强迫去学习。而当你是被强迫学习时,你的知识就是死的,而你也只会死板的去使用你的知识。那时你就会抱怨生命没有任何意义,你试图通过各种幻想,通过白日梦或玄妙词句来逃避它。夜总会,周末的消遣,假日,你用这些无关紧要的事情来逃避。你把自己的生活变得险隘,局限于家庭和它所带来的责任,以及无休止的工作和身不由己当中。

Learning without reward or punishment is quite another matter. If you understand and see this very clearly, when you play football, cricket, or when you are studying a subject, you will find that learning frees the mind rather than shapes it. Knowledge by itself shapes the mind, and so the mind becomes old. The schools and universities are making minds old. They condition conformity, for knowledge has become all-important—not learning but acquiring knowledge. It is an old mind that conforms, not the mind that is always learning. In this learning there is freedom in which knowledge can be used when it is needed. There are encyclopaedias, there are computers, so do not make your mind merely the storehouse of the past. This is order.

没有奖赏和惩罚的学习完全是另一回事。如果你明白了这个并对此看得很清楚,你会发现,在你玩足球,板球,或学习一个科目时,学习是释放你的心灵而不是去塑造它。知识本身塑造着心灵,心灵也变得老化。学校和大学都在使心灵老化。它们使你习惯于遵从,而知识变得无比重要——不是学习,而是获取知识。是这个陈旧的心灵在顺从,而不是一个不断学习的心灵。在这种学习里,有着自由,其中知识在需要时会被使用。我们有百科全书,我们有电脑,所以不要让你的心灵仅仅成为过去的仓库。这就是秩序。

Questioner: Do you mean to say that I don't have to acquire knowledge of any subject, that I don't have to study?
Krishnamurti: Not at all. When you put that question, what is behind it? Is it that you don't want to study because it bores you? Or are you asking- how to learn, that is, how to pay attention? When you don't want to pay attention, don't pay attention. What is important is to have a mind that has never been shaped in conflict, in wanting and not-wanting to pay attention. In that there is conflict. If you want to look out of the window, look out of the window completely without the conflict of saying you must look at the book. Look out of the window with your eyes, your ears, your mind and heart. Then when you look at the book in front of you, whatever the subject may be, look at it in the same way that you looked out of the window. You will, if you have no conflict. This is the primary thing to learn: never under any circumstances to have a conflict. Because you have learnt to look out of the window freely, without any restraint or compulsion, you will look at the book in the same manner, because this is learning. Both are learning: looking out of the window and looking at the book. Learning to be free from conflict is not indifference or allowing yourself to do nothing.

问:你的意思是不是说我不必去获取任何科目的知识,我不必去学习?
克:完全不是。当你提那个问题时,它的背后是什么?是不是你不想去学习因为它让你感到厌倦?还是你在问——如何去学习,也就是如何去投入注意力?当你不想投入注意力时,就不去投入注意力。重要的是你的心灵永远不要被冲突所塑造,要还是不要投入注意力等等。在要不要投入注意力的问题里暗含着冲突。如果你想看看窗外,那么你便完完全全地去看窗外,摆脱对自己说必须看书所带来的冲突。用你的眼睛,耳朵,头脑和心灵去看窗外。然后当你看你面前的书本时,无论它可能是哪个科目,用你看向窗外的那种方式去看它。如果你摆脱了冲突,你就会做到。这就是你首先要学的:在任何环境下都不要陷入冲突。因为你已经学会了自由地看向窗外,没有任何的限制或者强迫,你将会以同样的方式来看书,因为这就是学习。这些都是学习:看向窗外和看书。学习摆脱冲突不是不理它也不是允许自己什么都不做。

Q: If I get rid of conflict I will then do just what I enjoy.
K: Can you really do what you want? Isn't what you want a reaction to what you have been told to do? Is what you want free of the structure of the society in which you live? What you want is the pursuit of your particular pleasure. Then you will develop a double standard of life. Secretly you will pursue pleasure and openly you will be forced by the culture in which you live to conform to the respectable. So you are developing conflict, wanting your pleasures and not being able to have them, or having them and paying for it. All this obviously maintains conflict. Learning about conflict is the understanding of this whole pattern of the behaviour of pleasure.

问:如果我摆脱了冲突,我就可以做我喜欢的事了。
克:你真的能做你要做的事吗?你所要的难道它不是一个反应,一个对你曾被告知去做什么的反应吗?你所要的是超越你所生活的社会框架的吗?你所要的只是对你某种快感的追求。那时你就会发展出一种生活的双重标准。私下里你追求快感,而对外你被你所生活的文化所强迫去屈从于一种体面的方式。所以你的冲突在不断增长,想要快乐却无法获得,或者是获得了也付出了代价。很明显所有这些都维系了冲突。对冲突进行学习就是去了解快感的整个行为模式。

Q: Are you denying me pleasure?
K: On the contrary. If I were to deny you pleasure, you would fight, you would become violent. You would find a means to fulfil your pleasure, and so again you would be caught in conflict. We are always caught between punish¬ment and reward, which is fear; to learn about it is freedom from conflict.
Q: Are you saying that discipline is wrong?
K: No, we are not saying that.

问:你是在否定我的快感吗?
克:正相反。如果我否定了你的快感,你会为此而战,你会变得充满攻击性。你会去寻找一种方式来满足你的快感,而你将再一次陷入冲突之中。我们总是陷入奖励与惩罚之间,那就是恐惧;学习它就是从冲突中解脱。
问:你是说纪律是错的?
克:不,我们没这么说。

Q: Then why do we have rules?
K: Have you listened to what has been said about this question of discipline? Or have you listened only to the part that pleases you? If you have only half-listened, you have drawn a conclusion or an idea, and from that you are going to act or not act according to what pleasure dictates. We said that order is necessary. The whole universe functions in order except man. Man has allowed himself to live in this contradictory condition and from this arises all his misery. Do look at it all in a different way, not in terms of pleasure and punishment, but seeing a way of living in which every form of conflict comes to an end. You have to learn about this and the very learning creates its own order.

问:那我们为什么会有规则?
克:你听了关于纪律这个问题的讨论吗?还是你只是听了你喜欢的那部分?如果你只听了一半,就只会得出一个结论或想法,然后将按照那个令人愉悦的指示来行动或不行动。我们说秩序是必要的。整个宇宙都在秩序中运行,除了人类。人类使自己活在这种矛盾的状况里,也因此造成了他所有的痛苦。请以一种不同的方式来看待所有这些,不是以愉悦或是惩罚的角度,而是看到一种生活的方式,在其中任何形式的冲突都终结了。你必须去学习这些而正是这个学习创造了它自身的秩序。

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